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Extract from a recipe book of indigenous peoples in the Cordillera region of the Philippines1:

“The ingredients in this book are diverse. They come from the land and the waters of the indigenous territories in the Cordillera. They include grains, roots, stems, shoots and fruits of plants; fish, crabs and snails from the waters; domestic animals and those that grow wild in the forests; and insects. They are fresh, natural, packaging-free, and simply delicious. The great variety of the ingredients point to the people’s deep familiarity with their land and territory, their skill in foraging, hunting and gathering, and their physical strength and perseverance in working the land. From careful observation and experience, the people learned when is the best time to plant the seeds and when to harvest. They know when and how to catch the fish; gather the snails, crabs, frogs and tadpoles from the waters; and collect the edible mushrooms. Children get involved in gathering the next meal. After school they would go to the river or to the rice paddies and catch and gather ingredients for their mothers to cook. This way, the knowledge is passed on and kept for another generation.”


Making imbuleh, an indigenous dish from the Cordillera. Credit: PIKP.
  • Partners for Indigenous Knowledge Philippines
  • Marine and Coastal
  • Food
  • Short-form
  • This case study forms part of LBO-2, originally released in 2020.


  1. Cariño, J. (2019) (ed.) Heirloom Recipes of the Cordillera. Baguio: Task Force for Indigenous Peoples Rights and Partners for Indigenous Knowledge Philippines.