Strategic Goal E

Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society


Why the goal is important to indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs)

Participatory planning offers an opportunity for IPLCs to contribute to the implementation of the CBD’s Strategic Plan at all levels. Target 18, which comes under Goal E, is of central importance to IPLCs because it deals directly with traditional knowledge and customary sustainable use.

Experiences of IPLCs and contributions to the goal

IPLCs have much to contribute to translating the global Aichi Biodiversity Targets to the national and local level and to enhancing their implementation nationally and locally. The process of developing, updating and/or revising NBSAPs through participatory planning should enable this to happen, but in practice the process leaves much to be desired. A recent study reported that only 20 Parties reported any involvement of IPLCs in this process and 34% of NBSAPs had no targets at all relating to Target 18. Progress on Target 18 is poor: the loss of traditional knowledge is being reversed in some areas but the overall trend is one of continuing decline, with a continued loss of linguistic diversity, a decrease in traditional occupations and large-scale displacement of IPLCs.

More positively, growing recognition of the role of indigenous and local knowledge alongside scientific knowledge and of IPLCs’ collective actions (for example, in recent COP Decisions on resource mobilisation) is reflected increasingly in activities on the ground. The rapid evolution of digital technologies has been significant for IPLCs, greatly enhancing their capacity to ground-truth data derived from remote sensing and global and national data sets. In terms of finance, many IPLCs’ initiatives benefit from existing biodiversity funding sources, but IPLCs have reported that some of these sources are difficult for smaller organisations to access. Meanwhile, in some cases, biodiversity funding that has been allocated without the appropriate consultation and participation of IPLCs is proving  to have harmful effects on IPLCs and their lands and territories.

Key potential actions related to IPLCs that could accelerate progress, if more widely applied

  • Ensure that effective national and sub-national mechanisms are in place for the full and effective participation of IPLCs in policy processes related to the Strategic Plan, including NBSAP processes, the compilation of national reports, and in local implementation.
  • Mainstream the Programme of Work on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions and the Plan of Action on Customary Sustainable Use and scale up their implementation by incorporating Aichi Target 18 and linkages with all other Aichi Targets into NBSAP processes.
  • Establish improved mechanisms for the systematic monitoring of progress on the indicators related to Target 18.
  • Provide systematic support, including funding, for concrete actions: to promote the revitalisation of indigenous languages and traditional occupations, to improve land tenure security, and for effective application of traditional knowledge and customary systems of sustainable use.
  • Explore, in consultation with IPLCs, issues around collective actions and ways to aggregate data on collective actions under all the targets in the Strategic Plan.
  • Broaden the science-policy interface to include indigenous and local knowledge alongside scientific knowledge, and strengthen the interfaces between global, national, and community levels for knowledge generation, dissemination and application.