Target 11 – Protected areas

Aichi-11

Target 11 – Protected areas

By 2020, at least 17% of terrestrial and inland water areas and 10% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape.

Key message

Many IPLCs actively manage their customary lands and waters in ways that conserve them effectively. Their actions in doing so contribute to progress on this target and merit greater recognition and support. One mechanism towards this is the concept of Indigenous Peoples’ and Community Conserved Territories and Areas (ICCAs), which are among the most effective of all area-based conservation measures and contribute to both conservation coverage and connectivity. To achieve the target by 2020, actions are also needed to improve the equitable governance and management of protected areas, including through recognition of the rights of IPLCs and the adoption of mechanisms to address conflicts and human rights abuses.

Summary of progress towards the target

Primary case studies

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Target 10 – Ecosystems vulnerable to climate change

Aichi-10

Target 10 – Ecosystems vulnerable to climate change

By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

Key message

IPLCs, particularly those in small islands, coastal and high-altitude areas, deserts and the Arctic are already experiencing the impacts of climate change. Natural resource management systems of IPLCs and ICCAs[xxxvii] play an important role in reducing anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs and other vulnerable ecosystems. Concerted action on this target is needed to bolster IPLCs’ abilities to maintain ecosystem integrity and to cope with climate change impacts, including reform of climate mitigation and adaptation policies that stand to increase IPLCs’ vulnerability.

Summary of progress towards the target

Target 9 – Invasive alien species prevented and controlled

Aichi-09

Target 9 – Invasive alien species prevented and controlled

By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment.

Key message

Invasive Alien Species (IAS) pose serious threats to IPLCs’ cultural, environmental and food systems, and many IPLCs are contributing to, and in some cases initiating, programmes to address this growing problem. The actions of IPLCs, building on their traditional knowledge, can complement scientific solutions and strengthen holistic, ecosystem-based approaches to the identification, assessment, monitoring, and control or eradication of IAS.

Summary of progress towards the target

Target 8 – Pollution reduced

Aichi-08

Target 8 – Pollution reduced

By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.

Key message

IPLCs have made important contributions to reductions in nutrient pollution by promoting agricultural practices with no or minimal use of chemicals, including traditional systems. They have also contributed to reductions in heavy metal pollution through community-based monitoring and reporting, and through campaigns and litigation to hold polluters to account. Further action is urgently required to protect ecosystems, biodiversity and also IPLCs from the effects of pollution.

Summary of progress towards the target

Target 7 – Sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry

Aichi-07

Target 7 – Sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry

By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity

Key message

IPLCs’ customary sustainable use practices and management systems, including community-based innovations, are increasingly recognised as effective ecosystem-based conservation approaches and have a very valuable role to play in achieving this target. The translation of the CBD’s Plan of Action on Customary Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity[xxxi] into national and local plans and targets, and the implementation of these, provide a framework for increased recognition and support for such approaches.

Summary of progress towards the target

Other relevant case studies

Target 6 – Sustainable management of aquatic living resources

Aichi-06

Target 6 – Sustainable management of aquatic living resources

By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem-based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.

Key message

The continuation of unsustainable fishing practices threatens not only fish stocks, threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems but also the survival of the many IPLCs around the world who rely on fish and other aquatic resources for their livelihoods. Many fisher people have customary sustainable fishery systems to ensure that resources can continue to be used by future generations, and these traditional fishing practices have the potential to contribute to national and international marine biodiversity policies.

Summary of progress towards the target

Target 5 – Habitat loss halved or reduced

Aichi-05

Target 5 – Habitat loss halved or reduced

By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.

Key message

Shrinking forests and reduced access to resources have led to severe hardship among IPLCs, many of whom obtain their daily needs from the world’s forests. IPLCs are contributing to progress on this target through responsible management and conservation of their own forests, which recent studies show can be more effective in reducing deforestation than conventional protected areas, and also through activism at all levels to combat habitat loss and degradation caused by others. Respecting customary land and forest tenures and human rights are fundamental to enable upscaling of community conservation of habitats, complemented by regulatory and voluntary measures.

Summary of progress towards the target

Target 4 – Sustainable production and consumption

Aichi-04

Target 4 – Sustainable production and consumption

By 2020, at the latest, governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

Key message

IPLCs have much to contribute to this goal, offering many examples of how diverse local economies built on traditional and local knowledge, institutions, practices, cultures and values can achieve sustainable development. Through their community land use plans and territorial management plans (or “Life Plans”), many IPLCs work to ensure that the use of natural resources within their lands and territories is kept within safe ecological limits. Indigenous peoples’ and community-based organisations are also playing an important role in the establishment, implementation and monitoring of compliance with sustainability standards in commodity supply chains.

Summary of progress towards the target

Target 3 – Incentives reformed

Aichi-03

Target 3 – Incentives reformed

By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio- economic conditions.

Key message

Positive incentives targeted directly at IPLCs and respecting their traditional knowledge, their customary resource and ecosystem management practices, and their livelihoods, have high potential for securing multiple biodiversity values and contributing to climate change mitigation as well as community wellbeing. For sustainable and effective outcomes, incentives need to be designed and implemented in collaboration with IPLCs. Both financial and non-financial incentives should be considered, and benefits should flow directly to communities. In addition, a stronger focus is needed on eliminating perverse incentives, including those awarded to extractive industries, which can have disproportionate impacts on IPLCs, their lands and ecosystems.

Summary of progress towards the target

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