Repensando las soluciones basadas en la naturaleza: buscando un cambio transformador a través de la cultura y los derechos

Baiga women collecting leaves. Credit - ephotocorp

Lea el informe

El término “soluciones basadas en la naturaleza” es tan ampliamente utilizado como controvertido. Sigue estando mal definido y algunos de sus partidarios más entusiastas incluyen industrias y gobiernos responsables de gran parte del daño histórico y actual al planeta y a las comunidades globalmente.

Este informe analiza cuatro áreas en las que las soluciones basadas en la naturaleza necesitan más claridad y rigor para desempeñar un rol efectivo y transformador en impulsar el apoyo financiero y técnico donde más se necesita para abordar la crisis ambiental global, para defender los derechos humanos y para permitir una transición hacia economías y sociedades sostenibles:

  • La importancia de la cultura y los derechos de tenencia seguros
  • La necesidad de evitar compensar las emisiones y la pérdida de biodiversidad
  • La necesidad de enfoques de conservación y uso sostenible basados en los derechos humanos
  • La importancia fundamental de evitar violaciones de derechos humanos.

Film: Traditional knowledge provides resilience to a changing climate

Today, we are publishing the first in a series of films made in collaboration with Indigenous and local community filmmakers and If Not Us Then Who.

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Traditional knowledge provides resilience to a changing climate highlights how important cultural diversity is to the protection of biological diversity, by explaining the signs that members of the Maya Kaqchikel use to predict changes in the weather. It was filmed by Tirza Yanira Ixmucané Saloj Oroxom (Maya Kaqchikel) and produced by If Not Us Then Who, with input from Ramiro Batzin, Coordinator of Sotz’il and co-chair of the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity (IIFB).

This film series examines the critical contributions that Indigenous peoples and local communities make to protecting the world’s biodiversity, and complements the Local Biodiversity Outlooks (LBO).  

The second edition of LBO (LBO-2) – a companion publication to the 5th edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook –  is a landmark overview of these contributions by Indigenous peoples and local communities. The report brings together powerful case studies of local action from all over the world: from Torres Strait Islanders’ monitoring of sea grass health to the formation of the Wampis nation’s autonomous government, covering the 1.3 million hectares that makes up their ancestral territory. In the lead-up to the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP15) – when the next global biodiversity framework will be adopted – the report’s publishers will be working with case study authors and others to produce a series of multimedia resources which deepen and enhance the contents of LBO-2.

LBO-2 was published last year by the IIFB, the Indigenous Women’s Biodiversity Network, the Centres of Distinction on Indigenous and Local Knowledge, the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and Forest Peoples Programme.

Video: El conocimiento indígena ofrece resistencia contra el cambio climático

Hoy, publicamos el primero en una serie de videos realizados en colaboración con cineastes indígenas y locales y If Not Us Then Who.

El conocimiento tradicional ofrece resistencia contra el cambio climático destaca la importancia de la diversidad cultural para la protección de diversidad biológica. Explica las señales que los miembros de la comunidad Maya Kaqchikel usan para predecir cambios en la clima. Fue filmado por irza Yanira Ixmucané Saloj Oroxom (Maya Kaqchikel) y producido por If Not Us Then Who, con aportaciones de Ramiro Batzin, Coordinador de Sotz’il y copresidente del Foro Internacional Indígena sobre Biodiversidad (IIFB).

Este serie de videos examina las aportaciones fundamentales que la gente indígena y comunidades locales hacen para proteger la biodiversidad global, y complementa las Perspectivas Locales de la Biodiversidad (LBO).

Filme : La connaissance autochtone offre résistance contre le changemenent climatique au Guatemala

Aujourd’hui, nous publions le premier d’une série de films réalisés en collaboration avec des cinéastes indigènes et des communautés locales et Si ce n’est pas nous, alors qui.

Traditional knowledge provides resilience to a changing climate met en évidence l’importance de la diversité culturelle pour la protection de la diversité biologique, en expliquant les signes que les membres des Maya Kaqchikel utilisent pour prévoir les changements de temps. Il a été filmé par Tirza Yanira Ixmucané Saloj Oroxom (Maya Kaqchikel) et produit par If Not Us Then Who, avec la contribution de Ramiro Batzin, coordinateur de Sotz’il et co-président du Forum international autochtone sur la biodiversité (FIAB).

Cette série de films examine les contributions essentielles des peuples autochtones et des communautés locales à la protection de la biodiversité mondiale, et complète les Perspectives de la biodiversité locale (LBO).

La deuxième édition des Perspectives de la biodiversité locale (LBO-2), qui accompagne la cinquième édition des Perspectives mondiales de la biodiversité, est un aperçu historique de ces contributions des peuples autochtones et des communautés locales. Le rapport rassemble de puissantes études de cas d’actions locales menées dans le monde entier : de la surveillance de la santé des herbiers marins par les insulaires du détroit de Torres à la formation du gouvernement autonome de la nation Wampis, couvrant les 1,3 million d’hectares qui constituent leur territoire ancestral. À l’approche de la 15e Conférence des parties à la Convention sur la diversité biologique (CDB COP15) – au cours de laquelle le prochain cadre mondial pour la biodiversité sera adopté – les éditeurs du rapport travailleront avec les auteurs des études de cas et d’autres personnes pour produire une série de ressources multimédias qui approfondissent et améliorent le contenu de LBO-2.

LBO-2 a été publié l’année dernière par le FIAB, le Réseau des femmes autochtones pour la biodiversité, les Centres de distinction sur les savoirs autochtones et locaux, le Secrétariat de la Convention sur la diversité biologique et le Forest Peoples Programme.

Biodiversity and finance: building on common ground with customary rights-holders

An Ifugao woman on her way to collect young rice plants for transplanting into one of her family’s paddy fields in the Philippines. Credit: Chris Stowers
Global finance for biodiversity has grown significantly over the past 10 years and is now estimated at between US$78 billion and $147 billion per year. However, it is greatly outweighed by public subsidies and broader financial flows that drive biodiversity loss, which are estimated at between US$500 billion and several trillion per year. Furthermore, while the contributions of Indigenous peoples and local communities are widely recognised as critically important for protecting biodiversity, they are often negatively impacted by biodiversity finance, and receive little direct support for their efforts.

This briefing provides an overview of biodiversity finance and makes the case for increasing support to customary rights-holders. It additionally describes the financial flows driving biodiversity destruction and shows how they harm local people as well as nature, and outlines six key areas where the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework could increase the effectiveness of biodiversity finance by building on common ground with customary rights-holders.

This briefing has been produced as part of a series co-authored by Forest Peoples Programme (FPP) and partner organisations to expand on, and explore the policy implications of, the research and findings in the 2nd edition of the Local Biodiversity Outlooks. It is intended to contribute towards the evidence-based negotiations and dialogues towards the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

Read the briefing. 

Biodiversity Day 2021: We are part of the solution

This year’s theme for Biodiversity Day, we are part of the solution, recognises the important role that Indigenous peoples and local communities play in protecting and enhancing the world’s biological diversity. This page brings together messages from Indigenous and local communities marking Biodiversity Day 2021.

Comic: Let’s Go Back Home: Revisiting Indigenous Knowledge

Video: Antiguan Senator Maureen Hyman Payne visiting the Sweets Village Uncovered community conservation site & discussing the important role local communities play in supporting biodiversity

Video: “When we hear ‘we are part of the solution’, we think about preserving the way of life of our ancestors.” Indigenous people in Suriname reflecting on Biodiversity Day 2021

Indigenous Karen women in Thailand

Indigenous people in Russia

 

Briefing: Re-thinking nature-based solutions

Baiga women collecting leaves. Credit - ephotocorp

The term ‘nature-based solutions’ is both widely used and controversial. It remains ill-defined, despite some high-profile efforts to clarify it, and some of its most enthusiastic supporters include industries and governments responsible for much of the historical and ongoing damage to the planet and communities worldwide.

This briefing looks at key areas in which nature-based solutions need more clarity and rigour if they are to play an effective and transformational role in driving financial and technical support where it is needed most to tackle the global environmental crisis, to uphold human rights and to enable a transition to sustainable economies and societies. The briefing also makes a series of recommendations for the development of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.

Read the briefing.

World Wildlife Day 2021: Learning from indigenous peoples and local communities to restore our relationship with nature

Baiga women collecting leaves. Credit - ephotocorp

Today, the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity, the Indigenous Women’s Biodiversity Network, the Centres of Distinction on Indigenous and Local Knowledge, Forest Peoples Programme and the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity are marking World Wildlife Day by publishing the digital version of Local Biodiversity Outlooks 2 (LBO-2) in English, Spanish and French. 

LBO-2 is a landmark piece of collaborative research and analysis that features contributions from over 50 indigenous and local authors and communities. The report highlights the critical roles played by indigenous peoples and local communities in maintaining and enhancing biological and cultural diversity and outlines indigenous and local perspectives on the transformational changes needed in order to realise the vision of a world living in harmony with nature.

“From connectedness to nature comes the drive to safeguard it. From valuing our natural and cultural heritage comes the drive to ensure it is passed on. These are the things we learn in school and at home, from our peers and elders.” 

Josefa Tauli, Global Youth Biodiversity Network

The theme of this year’s World Wildlife Day, Forests and livelihoods: Sustaining People and Planet, foregrounds the importance of indigenous peoples and local communities, as well as the challenges they face as a result of insecure tenure, discrimination, climate change, declining biodiversity and the continued expansion of extractive industries. We know, for instance, that

  • At least 50% of the world’s land is collectively managed by indigenous peoples and local communities under customary tenure systems. Only 10% of these lands are legally secured.
  • The lands of indigenous peoples and local communities contain much of the world’s remaining biodiversity, and biodiversity managed by indigenous peoples and local communities is declining less rapidly than in other areas of the world.

As negotiations towards the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework continue, LBO-2 demonstrates that to protect biodiversity at any scale, indigenous peoples and local communities’ own territories and systems of governance must be recognised. 

“Today, as an elder of the Wapichan people, I call on our young leaders to diligently follow the ways of our ancestors in keeping our communities and our precious lands and resources healthy for the future of our people and the world. The earth is our mother so we need to take care of her. Let us make sure that our actions today and visions for tomorrow account for our people, our lands and our resources.  I call on governments to reflect and take into consideration policies and actions that negatively impact and destroy nature. One big step governments can take is give our people title to the land, territories, and resources.” 

Chief Kokoi, Wapichan elder (read the full statement on World Wildlife Day below)

In a series of six key transitions, LBO-2 explores the lessons drawn from the rich cases it contains to outline key changes that we need to see in our economic, financial and production systems, in governance, in land ownership and use, and in how we understand and use knowledge. The lessons drawn out here have much to offer policy makers as renewed commitments to climate change mitigation are being made and our global community confirms how the biodiversity crisis will be met.

Explore the digital report here.

Statement from Chief Kokoi, Wapichan elder, on World Wildlife Day 2021

“It is common knowledge that Indigenous Peoples’ lands and territories are the last sanctuaries where pristine forest and healthy fresh waters rich in flora and fauna can still be found. These fragile ecosystems and habitats play an important role in the culture of our Wapichan People. Our traditional lands and territories are under threat like none before through climate change and extractive industries. 

With the understanding of the challenges we face today, we have developed a management plan to help us to maintain this delicate balance of interdependency. The Wapichan people continue to fight for the security of our traditional land and the landscapes within which wildlife needs to thrive. 

This struggle faces many challenges: the lack of political will to resolve Indigenous Peoples’ land issues leaves large tracts of lands insecure and without legal protections. Policies promoting and supporting large scale agro projects and extractive industries on these lands significantly add to the destruction of key ecosystems and habits. They heighten the threat to survival of our people and the wildlife that supports our livelihoods.

Climate change has significantly altered our understanding about nature, our seasons have become confusing. And we see this confusion in the life of our forest, our plants, our fish, our birds and animals. Due to these unfavourable and unpredictable conditions, our wildlife and the environment which they depend on are now under extreme pressure to survive.  

Today, as an elder of the Wapichan people, I call on our young leaders to diligently follow the ways of our ancestors in keeping our communities and our precious lands and resources healthy for the future of our people and the world. The earth is our mother so we need to take care of her. Let us make sure that our actions today and visions for tomorrow account for our people, our lands and our resources.  I call on governments to reflect and take into consideration policies and actions that negatively impact and destroy nature. One big step governments can take is to give our people title to the land, territories, and resources.”

The Rooibos Benefit-Sharing Agreement: Breaking new ground with respect, honesty, fairness, and care, South Africa

Selling rooibos tea produced by the Khoi-San. Credit: Ivan Vaalbooi.

This is the abstract of a 2019 article by Schroeder et al. published in the Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics. [i]

“The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its 2010 Nagoya Protocol brought about a breakthrough in global policy making. They combined a concern for the environment with a commitment to resolving longstanding human injustices regarding access to, and use of biological resources. In particular, the traditional knowledge of indigenous communities was no longer going to be exploited without fair benefit sharing. Yet, for 25 years after the adoption of the CBD, there were no major benefit sharing agreements that led to significant funding streams for indigenous communities. This changed with the signing of the Rooibos Benefit Sharing Agreement in South Africa. As the authors report, the Rooibos Agreement is a superlative in two respects. It is the biggest benefit sharing agreement between industry and indigenous peoples to date. It is also the first industry-wide agreement to be formed in accordance with biodiversity legislation. This article is a co-production between traditional knowledge holders, the lawyer who represented their interests, the Co-Chair of the Nagoya Protocol negotiations, and an ethicist who analysed the major challenges of this historic agreement. With no precedent in the benefit sharing world, the agreement stands as a concrete example of the ‘art of the possible.’ Although the rooibos case is unique in a number of aspects, the experience offers many transferable insights, including: patience; incrementalism; honesty; trust; genuine dialogue; strong legal support; a shared recognition that a fair, win-win deal is possible; government leadership; and unity amongst indigenous peoples. Such ingredients of success can apply well beyond southern Africa.”

[i] Schroeder, D., Chennells, R., Louw, C., Snyders, L., and Hodges, T. (2019). ‘The Rooibos Benefit Sharing Agreement – Breaking new ground with respect, honesty, fairness, and care’. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29(2), pp. 285–301.

El Balché: Sacred trees and bees of the Maya people, Mexico

Beehives in a Mayan community in Mexico. Credit: Alessandro Banchelli.

Federación Indígena Empresarial y Comunidades Locales de México, A.C. (CIELO) y Sociedad Cooperativa Lool Xaam SC de RL de CV

Beekeeping is an important source of foreign exchange in our country and a source of income for much of the Maya community of Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Quintana Roo. However, it has decreased because of the low price paid to honey producers. In addition, populations of pollen- and nectar-producing trees have decreased in the area as a result of forest resource exploitation, so the quantity and quality of honey has also decreased. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the hives constantly, and also to monitor and reforest the flora around beekeeping farms, to ensure a supply of pollen and nectar for the bees. There has been minimal support from government agencies for this and, therefore, the U Lool Xaam Cooperative Society and its members have organised themselves to carry out part of these tasks.

In Tihosuco and in the Quintana Roo region, one of the most affected species is the balché (Lonchocarpus longistylus). This tree has become scarce over the past 10 years or so. The balché is a tree of great importance for the Maya people. It is used in rites and ceremonies: a drink is made from its bark which is presented as an offering during the cha’ chaakc ceremony in which Chaak, the god of rain, is asked to show favour to the crops. The drink has medicinal properties: an infusion of its leaves is used to treat coughs and to disinfect wounds. Balché flowers are a source of nectar for the bees, and the tree is ideal for the conservation of the hives, avoiding excessive swarms and keeping them in good condition for the honey harvest; this strengthens beekeeping as an economic activity and therefore strengthens the social development of families dedicated to beekeeping. Balché also has broader environmental importance, helping to combat the effects of pollution by purifying the air and preventing soil erosion.

Discussions between men and women in the community have identified, revalued and confirmed the cultural and environmental importance of balché trees, which has motivated not only their care but also ongoing reforestation. The CIELO partners of the Lool Xaam venture have reforested areas in the immediate vicinity of their beehives with native plants of the region, including balché and other species that are sources of nectar. The locations chosen for reforestation have been used for agriculture, and the intention is to regenerate the vegetation by planting diverse tree species which collectively can produce various types of nectar.

The reforestation and conservation of planted areas in the community of Tihosuco will contribute to the reproduction of native plant species, which in turn will increase bee production and strengthen its presence within the agri-food sector. This has great benefits for beekeeping as a sustainable productive activity, as well as for the promotion and maintenance of floral diversity in the region.